Thursday, 10 July 2014

Citations

Sim, Walter. (2014, March 19). More Food Going To Waste. Retrieved from http://www.straitstimes.com/breaking-news/singapore/story/more-food-going-waste-20140319-0

Food waste harms climate, water, land and biodiversity - new FAO report. (2013, September 11). Retrieved from http://www.unep.org/newscentre/default.aspx?DocumentID=2726&ArticleID=9611

DiBenedetto, Bill. (2013, September 27). Food Waste Has a Big Impact on Climate, Water, Land and Biodiversity. Retrieved from http://www.triplepundit.com/2013/09/food-waste-big-time-hit-climate-water-land-biodiversity/

Environmental and social impacts of food waste. (n.d.). Retrieved July 10, 2014 from http://www.lovefoodhatewaste.nsw.gov.au/business/love-food/impacts-of-food-waste.aspx

Lim, Jim. (n.d.). Garbage Enzyme - Multipurpose Uses & Safer and Cleaner Alternative. Retrieved from http://www.instructables.com/id/Garbage-Enzyme-Multipurpose-Uses-amp-Safer-and/

Procedures

Outline/Approach

Add sugar, fruit peel and water in a 1:3:10 ratio respectively. Contain the mixture in a plastic container and leave it to ferment for 3 months. Open the cap of the container to release the gas in the container once every few days. Make sure that it is recapped tightly. The garbage enzymes can be tested for it’s effectiveness by using it to wash greasy utensils and comparing the results to regular detergent.


Materials : 
Brown Sugar
Plastic container
Fruit peels or kitchen waste (Rise off gravy/sauces from leftover cooked food before using. Fruit skins should be taken from fruits like apple, orange, pineapple, pear, watermelon, grape, lemon, guava. Durians or meats should not be used.)
Measuring Scale


Procedures : 
1. Weigh the fruit peels
2. Using the total weight of the fruit peels, weigh the sugar and water such that the amount of sugar to fruit peels to water is in the ratio of 1:3:10.
3. Leave some airspace in the container and cap it tightly. Mix the ingredients well.
4. Leave the mixture to ferment for three months. Remember to release the gases formed once a day for the first month, making sure that it is re-capped tightly each time after the gas is released. For the 2nd and 3rd months, only release any gases if necessary (when a white layer forms on the surface of the enzyme solution)
5. After 3 months, filter the solution. The liquid obtained is Garbage Enzymes.
6. liquid obtained is Garbage Enzymes.The residue can be used again for a new batch of production by adding fresh garbage, or can also be dried, then blended and buried in the ground as a fertilizer.

7.Test the enzymes on greasy utensils and compare the results with greasy utensils that have been washed with regular detergent.




Background Information

Food wastage in Singapore
Every day, each person in Singapore has wasted food that is equivalent to 1 meal.It all added up to a ground breaking 296.00 tones, which weighs about the same as 1,420 fully load Airbus A-380 Airplanes of food waste. (National Environment Agency Statistics) 
The amount of food wasted has only increased year after year, with an average increase between 1.6 and 6.7%. 

Impacts of food wastage
Environmental impacts : 
The blue water footprint (consumption of surface and groundwater resources) of food wastage globally is about 250 cubic kilometers, the volume of water equivalent to the annual flow of Russia's Volga River. 
Food waste is most commonly sent to landfills for disposal, that when broken down, results in the production of methane, a greenhouse gas 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide. The carbon footprint of wasted food products an estimated 3.3 billion tons of greenhouse gases, placing it at the 3rd top greenhouse gas emitter, after the U.S and China, adding to the grave situation of global warming.
The amount of land that wasted food occupies nearly 1.4 billion hectares of land, which is nearly 30% of the world's agricultural area. This is unacceptable, considering that the world is considered to have too little land to produce enough food for the growing global population.
When food is wasted, natural resources used to produce, harvest, transport, process, package and distribute food products go down the drain. Water in particular is used in vast amounts to grow fruit, vegetables, cereals, grains and to support livestock. 
Economical impacts:
The total amount of wasted food costs us an unnecessary $750 billion annually.
Social impacts : 
Wasting so much food causes a lot of needless hunger around the world, especially in 3rd world countries.

Therefore, reducing food waste will save the whole world on the energy and resources that of into producing the food, which will have a very positive impact on all of us.



This is why we are doing garbage enzymes.


Garbage enzymes are a complex organic substance of protein chains and mineral salts and juvenile hormones, which can be used in the following ways:

- resolve / decompose
- transform / change
- compose / make up / combine
- catalysis

As a result of catalysis, ozone is produced which can reduce the amount of
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and this in turn reduces global warming.
This enzyme can be produced easily with the organic waste from our
kitchens.

During enzyme production, O3 (ozone) NO3 (nitrite) CO3 ( are generated and these could
help purify and whiten the clouds in the sky. Clouds that appear dark have heavy metals trapped inside, and cause more heat to be trapped on earth. 

O3 produced from the Garbage Enzymes could reduce the amount of trapped heavy metals, and at the same time, reduce global warming.

The NO3 produced is useful for the plants as plants use N (nitrogen) for their growth. Plants are essential to alleviating the problem of global warming as they produce oxygen and take in CO2 (carbon dioxide) - a greenhouse gas.

The use of Garbage Enzymes can clean the environment as they neutralize toxins and other pollutants in the soil, atmosphere and rivers, thereby refreshing our Earth.



The practical uses of Garbage Enzymes

Refreshing the air: 
During catalyst, garbage enzymes produce O3 that can not only can kill bacteria, but increases the oxygen in the air. 
Instructions:
Mix 1 : 500-1000 enzyme to water dilution, and place in a spray bottle. Spraying the air will keep the air clean, and eliminate bad odor.

Washing of toilets:
Garbage enzymes can wash the toilet, prevent clogs, destroy harmful bacteria, as the dirt and clog will be broken down by the garbage enzyme.
Instructions:
Use as you would commercial products, but give time for the enzymes to do its work.

Cleaning of Kitchen:
Garbage enzymes have the ability to effectively clean out the most stubborn of stains, as it breaks them down.
Instructions:
Dilute garbage enzyme and use as any other commercial product

Keeping clothes Clean:
Garbage enzymes can reduce detergents, making the washing procedure easier and soften clothes.
Instructions:
Soak clothes with a small amount of garbage enzyme

Cleaning of fruits and vegetables:
Garbage enzymes can clear pesticides, making the produce safer to eat.
Instructions:
Add a small amount of garbage enzyme when washing fruit or vegetables.

Skin care:
Garbage Enzymes can neutralize harmful chemical toxins in commercial skin care products, and also prevent skin allergies.
Soaking in garbage enzymes can also improve skin problems, and make your skin silky soft.
Instructions:
Add 1 : 10 of water to garbage enzyme ratio to shampoos, shower gels, dishwashing liquids or detergents.
Soak in lukewarm water with dilute garbage enzyme. Take note that the water cannot be too hot, else enzymes could get denatured and lose effect.

Pet Care:
Garbage enzymes can neutralize pet odor and make your pet healthier, and even cause it to grow more hair.
Instructions:
Use diluted garbage enzymes to wash pet and spray their pet houses.

Vehicle Care:
Garbage enzymes can cool down the engine and lengthen your vehicle usage, and also neutralize bad odor.
Instructions:
Add a small amount to your vehicle's water box, and spray in the vehicle.

Natural Fertilizer:
Garbage enzymes are a very good fertilizer, and help the plants to grow better.
Instructions:
Dilute garbage enzymes 2 : 1 water to enzyme ratio, and use to water plants.
Watering empty land for 3 months can improve soil quality.

Natural pest repellent:
Garbage Enzymes can repel pests like mosquitos, cockroaches and rats.
Instructions:
Spray where needed.